C3-PO Mandella Effect.

Does C3-PO have a silver leg?

Due in part to the relatively tight budget George Lucas had for the first Star Wars movie, ‘A New Hope,’ the C-3PO outfit worn by Anthony Daniels was far from perfect. On the very first day of filming the costume kept falling apart every few minutes, a situation that made working in the deserts of Tunisia an especially grueling task.

This situation was made worse when a section of the left leg shattered and forced itself straight through the plastic covering and into Daniels’ foot. Fortunately the injury was minor, but the problems with the costume were never really fixed for the duration of the shoot. Consequently there are numerous sequences where only the top half of C-3PO is in view because Anthony Daniels is not wearing the bottom section of the costume.

The Chive

Many people have queried if, perhaps, the silver leg was one of Lucas’ digital alterations. After all, Lucas made the ‘special edition’ original trilogy as the ‘definitive versions’ and, until recently as a bonus disc with Blue Ray, the unaltered original copies have not been available. The following images are from publications before the digital alterations.

Images like this may have helped to cement an “all gold” image in people’s minds.

In the following image he looks gold, until you look closely at his leg and realize that it is, indeed, a different shade. In this picture, Lucas’ is correct in saying the sand reflected off his silver, making it appear golden in most scenes.

Look closely. These legs are different.

But then there are images of merchandise, such as the following model claiming: “designed from the actual android,” in which we see, clearly, two golden legs. So the silver-leg was overlooked by merchandisers, and the lack of continuity has raised many questions and much incredulity among the Mandela Effect community.

Authentic model kit sold in 1977.

This article here discusses the Kenner line of toys, specifically the droids. In the pictures it’s hard to tell if he’s golden or silver – the colours reflect themselves and each other – the sheen on the gold looks silvery, just as the sheen on the silver movie C3PO looks gold, reflecting the rest of the droids body. The article discusses how the toy was painted with a full gold finish. It’s simply easier and cheaper to mass manufacture a toy and paint it entirely one colour, then manufacture a different coloured piece.

At Wookieepedia, the entry on C3PO says this: “C-3PO was built from spare parts by Anakin Skywalker, a human slave who lived in Mos Espa, a city on the Outer Rim world of Tatooine. C-3PO’s memory was erased, though R2-D2’s memory was not. C-3PO and R2-D2 were assigned to the Alderaan cruiser Tantive IV, where they served senator Bail Organa for nineteen years. At some point during this time, 3PO’s right leg was fitted with a mismatched droid plating.” This corroborates George Lucas’ story about the reason why they didn’t paint the new leg plating (mentioned earlier in this article.)

It also goes on to mention that C3PO’s components were originally manufactured off world on Affa, about a century before the Naboo invasion. “At some point, however, C-3PO fell into disrepair, and his vital components ended up in a junk pile on Tatooine. Anakin Skywalker, a slave boy from the Tatooinian city of Mos Espa, collected scrap parts and started rebuilding C-3PO so the droid would help his mother.[19] Although protocol droids were normally designed for light duty in luxurious environments, Skywalker specially modified C-3PO so he could withstand Tatooine’s sand and heat.[20] C-3PO served Anakin and his mother Shmi by performing household chores. During his time with Skywalker and Shmi, C-3PO’s wiring was left exposed since Skywalker was unable to outfit him with an outer covering.” Later, in Attack of The Clones, when C3PO goes with Anakin’s mother to live with the Lars family on the moisture farm, C-3PO is given silver plating to shield him from Tatooine’s sandy environment.

In the animated series, The Clone Wars, C3PO’s legs get blown off on Cymoon 1, and in Attack of The Clones his head is easily detached and reattached onto a battle droid (and vice versa), and in The Empire Strikes Back, he is completely disassembled by imperial troopers on Cloud City. In The Force Awakens we see he has a new arm for some reason. There is ample evidence to show us how poorly designed Threepio is, that he breaks so easily (perhaps this backstory and later inclusions were inspired by the issues they had with the first costume while filming A New Hope.) It would make sense that the shin plating on his leg would need to be replaced at some point before Episode IV takes place in Lucas’ “used universe.”

On the website Starwarshelmets.com, there is technical details about the manufacture of the costume and numerous numerous photos. It is surprising how often the gold looks silver, even in Episode 3 which is the only film C3PO is actually all gold.

The main problem, I believe, with the whole C-3PO Mandela Effect theory is illustrated by the following image:

Once you see it – you can’t unsee it, as the saying goes. The leg is the same – it was always there, an unimportant and small detail we weren’t aware of, and then it was one day brought to our attention and the whole thing has been blown out of proportion.

Interview with Anthony Daniels http://www.usatoday.com/story/life/entertainthis/2015/12/15/anthony-daniels-c3po-star-wars/77341766/


The Berenstein/Berenstain Bears

I’m not going to go into the Mandela Effect. If you are unfamiliar with it, then you won’t understand what this article is about. If you are familiar with it, then hopefully this article can raise or answer questions for you, depending on what your beliefs and experiences are. I will try to look at this subject from both sides of the argument and will try to keep my bias out of it. Personally, I find this whole thing fascinating – whether it is proof of Quantum Pollution or simply mass delusion or cognitive dissonance.


Section One: Typo’s or Remnants?

  1. Norwell Public Library. On the Norwell Public Library site is a listing of education children’s books. On this list is the following: The Berenstein Bears and the Drug Free Zone” by Stan Berenstain. Brother and Sister Bear try to solve the mystery of how illegal drugs are getting into their school. J BERENSTEIN. 

Opinion: Mistakes and printing errors can occur, but I do find it odd that a Librarian would spell the Author and the book title wrong on the library website.

See for yourself on the Norwell Public Library website.

2) http://www.80scartoons.net In the archives of the internet is a website that collated information on 80’s cartoons. The Berenstein Bears was one such cartoon. On the 5th of February and the 5th of April in 2001, the entries on this site are Berenstein. On the first two entries, all links and references to books and films are also spelled Berenstein. However, from 5th August 2001 the show becomes Berenstain, as do all links, references and facts. Credit goes to Ya OughtaLearn  who posted a video posted on Daikhlo.com where I learned about this.

Opinion: It seems strange that, even if typos were made and then discovered, that the web author didn’t correct the first two entries and the relevant links and facts. The web author may not have even noticed their mistake, or perhaps was simply too lazy to correct their previous work.

Checkout 80’s Cartoons for yourself or view the original video on Daikhlo.

3) The Berenstein Bears Camping Adventure video game. On the Bears’ Wikipedia article it lists all the video game and software titles, and is accordingly spelled with an A. However, on YouTube there is game play footage where the opening title clearly spells Berenstein. There is also another video of game play spelled BerenSTAIN. On website Sega Retro, there is archived information about both the Genesis and the Game Gear versions – the scanned packaging and cartridges both clearly with an A.

Opinion: Perhaps, riding on the popularity of ME somebody has edited this footage to fake proof of ME. These old games are hard to come by, so it would be tough to prove or disprove the argument. According to the Retro Sega website there were never alternative spellings for the games, they were always published as Berenstain Bears.

View the Retro Sega archive here, or you can watch game play footage from BerenSTEIN Bears on youtube is here, and game play footage of the BerenSTAIN Bears on youtube here.

4) Practitioner Teacher Inquiry and ResearchPractitioner Teacher Inquiry and Research explores the concept and importance of the teacher practitioner, and prepares students in teacher education courses and programs to conduct research in the classroom. Author Carolyn Babione has extensive experience in undergraduate- and graduate-level teacher training and teacher inquiry coursework. In the book, Babione guides students through the background, theory, and strategy required to successfully conduct classroom research. The first part of the book tackles the “how-to” and “why” of teacher inquiry, while the second part provides students with real-life practitioner inquiry research projects across a range of school settings, content areas, and teaching strategies.

CAROLYN BABIONE, PHD, a former classroom teacher, is professor emerita of education at Indiana University Southeast, a regional campus of Indiana University. PTIR was published December 2014 by Josse-Bass. ISBN 978-1-118-58873-4.

While searching on Google Books I found that the index of this book lists references to BerenSTEIN (both the books and authors are spelled this way), but when you click on the page links everything actually written in the book is BerenSTAIN. How did this kind of error get to print?

Here is a listing for Practitioner Teacher Inquiry and Research on Wiley.com. And here is a link to the scanned index, found on Google Books (page 301.)

5) YouTube links.

Robby Santiago was sent a photo of a VHS from a friend, titled: Berenstein Bears and the Disappearing Honey Pot. Unfortunately this could also have been photo shopped or edited some other way. It would be interesting to find other copies of this title for comparison.


6) The following is a list of books and magazines, with links, found on google books that aren’t able to be read online. I am supplying these as I would love proof from scanned hardcopies. If you search google books you will, literally, find thousands of entries for Berenstein Bears – so I have just provided a selection to show that it is more than a typo in low-budget publications.

Language, Literacy and the Child. In the Second Edition of this popular textbook, Galda, Cullinan, and Strickland continue to show new teachers how to use children’s literature to support English language arts teaching and learning in kindergarten through eighth-grade classrooms. LANGUAGE, LITERACY, AND THE CHILD presents current theories and research alongside practical classroom applications. With this organization, the authors provide theoretically sound, literature-based practices and teaching ideas to help students as they begin to teach. As with the previous book, the index lists STEIN but a further search of the text shows that in the book itself it is only spelled STAIN.

Drum: A Magazine of Africa for Africa. This magazine shows in their TV listings a slotted episode of Berenstein Bears. Unfortunately, I can not find an archived copy of this to further investigate.

Media Information Australia, Issues 75-76Published by Australian Film and TV School, North Ryde, 1995. This is another example of a publication that you would expect to be able to spell the name of the media it discusses correctly. And again, it is one that cannot be read on google books.

Companies And Their Brands, issue 9, volume 2. Surely this publication would get the name of the brand spelled correctly? But you guessed it. Berenstein again.

Billboard magazine, in a full title search on google books, spells it STEIN from 1996 to 2001.

New York Magazine has, on two occasions in 1984, spelled it Berenstein Bears for their tv/movie listings.

In conclusion, it is clear that assumptions and errors have been made. We have to be ready to admit that mistakes happen. Encyclopedias and dictionaries have had errors in them, but this does not make them definitive or true. And it’s when these alternative sources of information are referenced that these contradictory ideas can arise.

Please feel free to comment if you liked this article or have any information/experiences you would like to share on this topic.

Doctor Who: The Mind of Evil by Terrance Dicks

doctor_who_the_mind_of_evilThe Third Doctor and his companion, Jo, visit Stangmoor prison where a Professor Kettering is using a device on criminals that, it is claimed, drains all evil and negative impulses from their minds. The machine is used on a prisoner named Barnham who, to the Doctor’s horror, is successfully pacified by being turned into a drooling imbecile. But as the Professor tests the machine a string of mysterious and impossible deaths occur in the prison, and when The Doctor approaches the machine he is psychically assaulted with manifestations of his greatest fear – all consuming fire. Nearby the first World Peace Conference is taking place where one of the delegates is acting strange and suspicious. It is revealed that she is being manipulated by The Master, Dr Who’s archnemesis, who it also turns out is the man who invented the machine.

At the prison a riot breaks out as a prisoner who was destined to be next for the machine takes over the prison, capturing Jo and eventually The Doctor. Upon hearing of this, The Master meets with this man and supplies him with weapons and attacks The Doctor with the machine, weakening him. He reveals that it actually contains a dangerous alien Mind Parasite that feeds off mental energies. But the parasite is growing too powerful for The Master to control and he must enlist the Doctor’s help to contain it.

The Master then enlists the prisoners as his army and uses them to capture a nerve gas missile that is being transported nearby – his plan, to launch the missile at the Peace Conference and start WWIII unless The Doctor gives him the component to his TARDIS back. It is discovered that Barnham, having no negative energies left in him, is now immune to the parasite. The Doctor uses Barnham to unleash the alien on The Master while The Doctor sets the missile to self-detonate, destroying the parasite at the same time. Unfortunately, amidst the anarchy and chaos that follows, The Master gets his component back and is able to escape, killing Barnham in the process.

This book is the novelization of six episodes from season eight, aired in 1971. The scripts were written by Terrance Dicks, who also wrote this novelization. This has allowed him to expand on the nature of the relationship between The Master and The Doctor more than what was able to be shown in the show. Unfortunately, because it is six episodes compacted into one short novel, some scenes transpire so rapidly that, what would have been an engaging serial on TV, turns into a rushed mess that jumps all over the place. That aside, it is a very enjoyable book. Having never seen any of the classic series of Dr Who I was intrigued by the concept of Dr Who being exiled to Earth as punishment, working as a Sherlock Holmes type character in a subtle role, as opposed to the hyper-intelligent superhero he has come to be known as in modern serials. An acceptable political drama, but mostly a very decent sci-fi thriller. The twists were predictable, but there were also some ploys in the book that caught me completely off guard, which is always satisfying to be outsmarted by an author. A strong Dr Who story that any fan or layman will surely enjoy.

The Day of The Triffids by John Wyndham


When the carnivorous bio-engineered plants that can walk and communicate to each other, known as Triffids, are accidentally released into the wild they quickly begin breeding and spreading around the world, their spores born in the wind. They are farmed and harvested en masse for their valuable extracts, but when a mysterious meteor shower renders those who witness it blind, the Triffids are free to escape and breed more prolifically.

Bill Marsden is a biologist who specializes in Triffids. He is attacked by a Triffid while working and gets venom in his eyes. Exposure to immature venom in his youth have given him a resistance to the venom’s usual fatality and he is rushed to hospital. This is where the story begins. Bill wakes up in hospital, bandages over his eyes, and notices that the world is silent. He wanders through a crippled and chaotic London and learns that most of the world is blind; people are huddled in terror or crawling everywhere, calling out for their families. He quickly learns that it is dangerous to let people know he can see as the blind swarm him like drowning men scrabbling on a life-raft. He also quickly learns the harsh reality that he is unable to help anyone and that to survive he must leave everyone else to their fate. Bill befriends and becomes infatuated with a young woman, Josella, who can also see, and the two follow a beacon light on a hill and discover a small group of survivors who intend on setting up a colony in the countryside.

Like most apocalyptic fiction, this book is pretty standard fare – groups of gangs and raiders, slavers and militant types. Modern post apocalyptic fiction is considered to have first been published in 1826 by Mary Shelly in her novel The Last Man, in which a group of people struggle to survive in a plague-infected world. H. G. Wells re-invigorated the concept in the late 1800’s, but the genre rose to prominence after World War II, with the focus being on nuclear or bio-engineered cataclysms. Where Wyndham stands out is in the constant ominous overtones and the almost biblical images of the blind crawling, and eventually, rotting in the streets. The book does not take place after the apocalypse, it watches it painfully unfold and literally decay. Thematically, the major focus is in man’s meddling with nature and how ultimately nature will reclaim from humans. Gardens and countryside grow wild, streets are ruptured with weeds and shrubs and buildings crumble as plants rip through them.

And then, there are the Triffids. They almost come as a surprise – the book focuses so heavily on the destruction of civilization and on the journey of the protagonist, that you forget about these amazing creations. Until Bill sees Triffids Stalking him in the bushes. Attacking people in the streets. Eating their flesh. As their numbers increase the Triffids become a more and more significant threat. Similar to how in The Walking Dead the zombies are attracted to other groups of zombies, Triffids communicate and attract more Triffids. Soon the protagonists find themselves trapped in their countryside retreat, fighting at the walls and fences in a futile battle against a threat that is constantly and literally growing.

The Day of The Triffids is a complex apocalypse story set in an uncertain era of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons, the dawn of The Space Age, the beginnings of a truly global market and burgeoning genetic sciences. All of these things have influences in the book, and most have a direct impact upon the story itself. Though aesthetically it is a science fiction survival story, at it’s heart it is a snapshot of post-war Britain; a social commentary of the concerns and fears of a generation that had just survived the greatest and most horrific war in the history of mankind. The war had shaken people’s faith in the world and the notion of peace and security, and these fears play out in the book on a global, tribal and personal level.

A thrilling and suspenseful survival story garnished with some truly creepy and terrifying moments. A classic novel that I highly recommend, and that truly deserves the title given it by Arthur C. Clarke of “an immortal story.”

StarTroopers: The Final Episode by Ged Maybury

A children’s adventure tale with surprisingly complex characters and plot. Gripping to the end.

Spencer Sockitt is a huge fan of the science fiction franchise, StarTroopers, and is ecstatic to get to interview the author – Arthur Thorsen – for his school magazine. However, the author is not what he was expecting: he is a strange man who claims that, rather than writing fiction, he has visions of battles in far off space, and he is merely a vessel that writes these down. But Spencer uncovers a conspiracy: the evil Blitzoids are here on Earth and are manipulating Thorsen. They believe that he doesn’t have visions, but is in fact a legendary Imaginor – his words and thoughts and beliefs shape reality around him. The stories he writes become real, and the Blitzoids are dictating his latest novel in their favour. Spencer and his friend Rebecca find themselves embroiled in a galactic battle as the powerful Star Troopers try to overcome the evil Warlord Kruel and his Blitzoid army. But things are never black and white; the lines between good and bad become blurred. In war, good is always merely a point of view…

Those who are familiar with Maybury will know that he is a quirky and outlandish character, and this book fully encapsulates those ecclectic qualities of his. What starts off as typical children’s book fare, with over-the-top names and language to pander to the younger readers and quirky mannerisms to define characters, quickly descends into quite a thoughtful and action packed tale. It is a deeper tale than you realise, as the plot is developed and the story explored from both sides. Maybury presents children with a complex story; the main antagonist has a deep and complicated background and the protagonists are flawed, biased and must overcome their cultural and social conditioning to draw their own conclusions. Ultimately, the book reveals that there is no bad guy, or rather, when it comes to violence and war that there is no real good guy. The growing sense of ominousness comes to a full, complex and satisfying conclusion through investigation and politics. Maybury teaches children that violence and conflict only propagate more violence, and that the only true solution is through understanding and diplomacy. A message that most adults still have yet to learn.

Maybury is a New Zealand writer. New Zealand, being a British colony like so many other nations, has a past that is speckled with racial and cultural injustices. And even though New Zealand has been a nation to quickly embrace equality with women and the indigenous Maori having full voting rights by 1893 (irrespective of status). Despite this, there is still colourful debate and controversy surrounding the initial land purchases made of the Maori people by the British Government in the 1800’s. This can be a divisive issue for modern New Zealanders.

This history would seem to serve as inspiration for the villains backstory, and Maybury approaches the topic from a neutral point of view. He doesn’t favour any one side and presents both sides as being wrong (a bold and contrary stance to make on an important issue that affects the cultural heritage of both Maori and Europeans.)

The language is colourful and infused with plenty of sci-fi technobabble that will surely entertain and impress the younger reader. For the older reader it can be over-cooked and often unnecessary, but it is also used very deliberately as a colouring method for the universe he has created and gives it a depth and an age found in franchises like Star Wars, and this helps to ground and normalize the more fantastic elements that are introduced.

I was apprehensive about reading a children’s book featuring an alien race called ‘Blitzoids’, and also based on the artwork of the cover. Childrens fiction tends to pander too much to children, or it ignores them completely and forgets they are the target demographic. Maybury has successfully written a tale that treats the young readers with a bit more respect; he isn’t afraid to throw in large confusing words or complicated concepts: StarTroopers is both colourful entertainment and also an intellectual challenge for children. This is exactly how it should be. I thoroughly enjoyed this book, and for lovers of children’s science fiction, or New Zealand fiction, I highly recommend StarTroopers.

The Dark Tower by C. S. Lewis

An unexpectedly dark and unsettling tale of inter-dimensional travel, monstrous creatures and alternate realities. A powerful read that grips you right to the end.

C. S. Lewis is renowned worldwide for his children’s fantasy novels, especially the Chronicles of Narnia, but his less known works include a trilogy of science fiction novels plus an unfinished fourth (The Dark Tower.) An intended fourth entry to The Cosmic Trilogy, it was never finished or published. It was discovered among paperwork being destroyed after Lewis’ death by the lawyer of his estate and, despite evidence suggesting that segments of this work were read at the famous gatherings of The Inklings (a group of literary enthusiasts, including Tolkien, who were mostly associated with the University of Oxford who met and read excerpts and discussed fantasy and science fiction literature) there was controversy around the authenticity of the writings.

Less well-known are C. S. Lewis’s science fiction novels.

It is estimated that this story was written in the early forties, predating his more famous fantasy works (and some elements from this story seem to make their way into the Chronicles of Narnia which wasn’t published until the early fifties.) The intriguing nature of this story is how it starts off with several scientists discussing the nature of time travel and ends up being a gothic-horror story about inter-dimensional travel.

One of the academics, Orfieu, discloses to his companions that, as time travel itself is impossible he has focused his research into simply viewing time, and has created a machine called the chronoscope. This device lets the men view a fixed but undisclosed place they call ‘The Othertime’. It is a dark and oppressive place, where The Stingingman (a man with a large, seeping horn growing through his skull) stabs volunteers in the stomach, injecting them with venom and transforming them into willing automaton-like slaves called Jerkies (because of their movements) who are laboring to complete construction of a great but dark tower.

Orfieu’s assistant, Scudamour, discovers with horror that he has an exact double in this Othertime, who as the story progresses, is imprisoned and mutates into the next Stingingman, replacing the previous one. One of the other academics observes that this incomplete building is actually a replica of the new Cambridge University Library, where the men are presently situated as they observe all this.

I shall leave any plot discussion here so to avoid spoiling the story. There are a few twists and a few genuinely unsettling moments. Stylistically, this story is unlike anything of Lewis’s that I have read, and this is also the basis as to why the authenticity is still debated by academics. The story is dark and uncomfortable to read – the setting is unidentifiable (possibly set in post-war time) but feels like it could be a Victorian gothic story, with the sense of growing dread and nihilism common in H. P. Lovecraft’s works. The characters, though underdeveloped due to the unfinished nature of the story, are suitably sympathetic with clear motivations.

I was thoroughly enjoying this story and was sorely disappointed when it came to an abrupt, unfinished end. The Dark Tower and Other Stories discusses the story in more depth, and pre-warns readers that it is missing sections and unfinished, but this does nothing to diminish the feeling of disappointment as such a gripping and dread-inducing tale is suddenly ended.

For fans of Lovecraft or C. S. Lewis or cosmic-horror in general, this story is a great look into the creative prowess of a man who could write for children and adults alike, a man who refused to be categorized as a genre writer.

Space: Above and Beyond #1 The Aliens Approach by Easton Royce

A fast-paced and exciting read set in a complex multi-faceted future.

In the mid 21st century humans have begun to colonize other worlds. But mankind soon learns it is not alone when an unknown alien force destroys the settlement, and humans quickly finds itself in a race to defend the Earth and all of humanity against this new blood-thirsty foe.

Based on the failed TV series (despite winning 2 Emmy awards, a Saturn award, and being ranked by IGN in the top 50 sci-fi shows) this book is a teen novelization of the first episodes in the series. The story centers on three main characters – Nathan, Shane and Cooper. Nathan finds himself being sent to a different colony to his girlfriend, Kylen, and tries to sneak aboard her ship but is caught and is kicked out of the colonization program – now his only chance to be reunited is to join the Space Cavalry and hope he can find her. Shane, forced to watch her parents killed during the AI wars, enlisted, vowing to avenge her parents deaths; and Cooper is a synthetic, created in a test-tube in a lab and, as a member of a undesirable social class with little rights, finds himself punished for a crime he didn’t commit: being sentenced to the military.

Space: Above and Beyond follows these three as they are enlisted, train, and encounter the alien menace on their first mission on the surface of mars. The prose is sharp and well-paced, designed for a younger audience: it effectively leaves enough ambivalence in the description to let the younger reader imagine as much or as little as they want to, without either pandering to their age or being vague or obtuse. The plot, however, suffers from being rushed. Many episodes were written into this book and as a result sometimes it feels more like an extended training montage than a novel (and it is a short novel, at 138 pages and has a slightly larger than average type-face size). Novelizations are supposed to expand on the film or television source, but this book feels a little flat when it comes to characters, and though I have never seen the show, can surmise that it may actually be the superior product.

The over-all feel of the book, though, is something with spectacular potential: AI wars, racial tension, politics of war and hard core action – I would definitely read the rest of the books in this series to discover more about this universe. In terms of tone, it is similar to Heinlein’s Starship Troopers, Busby’s Star Rebel, or even Scott Card’s Ender’s Game. An entertaining teens book that can be enjoyed in several sessions by adults as well. Highly recommended to those who enjoy the aforementioned authors, or those who are fans of classic sci-fi franchises like Star Trek or Battletech, or series such as Firefly or Babylon 5.